Source: California Invasive Plant Council


URL of this page: http://www.cal-ipc.org/site/paf/347
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Cal-IPC Plant Assessment Form

For use with "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands"
by the California Invasive Plant Council and the Southwest Vegetation Management Association

Table 1. Species and Evaluator Information

Species name
(Latin binomial):
The official Latin binomial name for this species. Specify only one name here. Additional species names may go into the Synonyms field.

Festuca arundinacea

Synonyms:
Additional Latin binomial names for this species. Separate multiple names with a ; character. Please avoid narrative descriptions, and list only the binomial names.
Bromus arundinaceus, Festuca elatior ssp. arundinacea, F. elatior var. arundinacea, Lolium arundinaceum
Common names:
Common names for this species. Separate multiple names with a ; character.
reed fescue; alta fescue; coarse fescue; rescue; reed fescue; tall fescue; Kentucky fescue
Evaluation date:
The date(s) when this species PAF was filled out, modified, or reviewed. This is free-form text, so it may include multiple dates or other notes.
8/5/2004
Evaluator #1 Brianna Richardson, Project Manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442-A Walnut Street #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510.843.3902
brichardson@cal-ipc.org
List committee members: Joe DiTomaso, John Randall, Alison Stanton, Peter Warner, Cynthia Roye, Jake Sigg
Committee review date: 8/27/2004
List date:
Re-evaluation date(s):
General comments
on this assessment:
Enter any additional notes about this assessment, such as factors affecting the reliability or completeness of the answers, likely affects of impacts, or research which is not specific to California but is still relevant in the evaluation of this species.
Numerous cultivars exist.

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score

Plant scoring matrix
Based on letter scores from Sections 1 through 3 below

ImpactInvasivenessDistribution
AA BAnyHighNo Alert
AC DAnyModerateAlert
BA BA BModerateNo Alert
BA BC DModerateAlert
BC DAnyLimitedNo Alert
CAA BModerateNo Alert
CAC DLimitedNo Alert
CBAModerateNo Alert
CBB DLimitedNo Alert
CCAnyLimitedNo Alert
DAnyAnyNot ListedNo Alert

Moderate

Alert Status

Plant scoring matrix
Based on letter scores from Sections 1 through 3 below

ImpactInvasivenessDistributionAlert
AA or BC or DAlert
BA or BC or DAlert

No Alert

Documentation

The total documentation score is the average
of Documentation scores given in Table 2.

Reviewed Scientific Publication4 points
Other Published Material3 points
Observational2 points
Anecdotal1 points
Unknown or No Information0 points

2.9 out of 5

Score Documentation
1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes
Consider the impact on the natural range and variation of abiotic ecosystem processes and system-wide parameters in ways that significantly diminish the ability of native species to survive and reproduce. Alterations that determine the types of communities that can exist in a given area are of greatest concern. Examples of abiotic processes include:
- fire occurrence, frequency, and intensity;
- geomorphological changes such as erosion and sedimentation rates;
- hydrological regimes, including soil water table;
- nutrient and mineral dynamics, including salinity, alkalinity, and pH;
- light availability (e.g. when an aquatic invader covers an entire water body that would otherwise be open).

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ most severe impact on an abiotic ecosystem process:
A. Severe, possibly irreversible, alteration or disruption of an ecosystem process.
B. Moderate alteration of an ecosystem process.
C. Minor alteration of an ecosystem process.
D. Negligible perceived impact on an ecosystem process.
U. Unknown.
U. Unknown
Impact
Section 1 Scoring Matrix
Q 1.1Q 1.2Q 1.3Q 1.4Score
AAAnyAnyA
ABA,BAnyA
ABC,D,UAnyB
AC,D,UAnyAnyB
BAAAnyA
BABAA
BAB,CB-D,UB
BAC,D,UAA
BAC,D,UB-D,UB
BBAAA
BC,D,UAAB
BB-DAB-D,UB
BB-DB-D,UAnyB
BD,UC,D,UA-BB
BD,UC,D,UC,D,UC
C-D,UAAAnyA
CBAAnyB
CA,BB-D,UAnyB
CC,D,UAnyAnyC
DA,BBAnyB
DA,BC,D,UAnyC
DCAnyAnyC
DD,UAnyAnyD
UAB,CAnyB
UB,CA,BAnyB
UB,CC,D,UAnyC
UUAnyAnyU


Four-part score
UCBC

Total Score
C
1.2 Impact on plant community
Consider the cumulative ecological impact of this species to the plant communities it invades. Give more weight to changes in plant composition, structure, and interactions that involve rare or keystone species or rare community types. Examples of severe impacts include:
- formation of stands dominated (>75% cover) by the species;
- occlusion (>75% cover) of a native canopy, including a water surface, that eliminates or degrades layers below;
- significant reduction or extirpation of populations of one or more native species.

Examples of impacts usually less than severe include:
- reduction in propagule dispersal, seedling recruitment, or survivorship of native species;
- creation of a new structural layer, including substantial thatch or litter, without elimination or replacement of a pre-existing layer;
- change in density or depth of a structural layer;
- change in horizontal distribution patterns or fragmentation of a native community;
- creation of a vector or intermediate host of pests or pathogens that infect native plant species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on community composition, structure and interactions:
A. Severe alteration of plant community composition, structure, or interactions.
B. Moderate alteration of plant community composition.
C. Minor alteration of community composition.
D. Negligible impact known; causes no perceivable change in community composition, structure, or interactions.
U. Unknown.
C. Minor Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels
Consider the cumulative impact of this species on the animals, fungi, microbes, and other organisms in the communities that it invades. Although a non-native species may provide resources for one or a few native species (e.g. by providing food, nesting sites, etc.), the ranking should be based on the species’ net impact on all native species. Give more weight to changes in composition and interactions involving rare or keystone species or rare community types.
Examples of severe impacts include:
- extirpation or endangerment of an existing native species or population;
- elimination or significant reduction in native species’ nesting or foraging sites, cover, or other critical resources (i.e., native species habitat), including migratory corridors.

Examples of impacts that are usually less than severe include:
- minor reduction in nesting or foraging sites, cover, etc. for native animals;
- minor reduction in habitat connectivity or migratory corridors;
- interference with native pollinators;
- injurious components, such as awns or spines that damage the mouth and gut of native wildlife species, or production of anti-digestive or acutely toxic chemical that can poison native wildlife species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on community composition and interactions:
A. Severe alteration of higher trophic populations, communities, or interactions.
B. Moderate alteration of higher trophic level populations, communities, or interactions.
C. Minor alteration of higher trophic level populations, communities or interactions.
D. Negligible impact; causes no perceivable change in higher trophic level populations, communities, or interactions.
E. Unknown.
B. Moderate Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.4 Impact on genetic integrity
Consider whether the species can hybridize with and influence the proportion of individuals with non-native genes within populations of native species. Mechanisms and possible outcomes include:
- production of fertile or sterile hybrids that can outcompete the native species;
- production of sterile hybrids that lower the reproductive output of the native species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on genetic integrity:
A. Severe (high proportion of individuals).
B. Moderate (medium proportion of individuals).
C. Minor (low proportion of individuals).
D. No known hybridization.
U. Unknown.
C. Minor / Low Other Published Material
2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment
Assess this species’ dependence on disturbance—both human and natural—for establishment in wildlands. Examples of anthropogenic disturbances include:
- grazing, browsing, and rooting by domestic livestock and feral animals;
- altered fire regimes, including fire suppression;
- cultivation;
- silvicultural practices;
- altered hydrology due to dams, diversions, irrigation, etc.;
- roads and trails;
- construction;
- nutrient loading from fertilizers, runoff, etc.

Examples of natural disturbance include:
- wildfire;
- floods;
- landslides;
- windthrow;
- native animal activities such as burrowing, grazing, or browsing.

Select the first letter in the sequence below that describes the ability of this species to invade wildlands:
A. Severe invasive potential—this species can establish independent of any known natural or anthropogenic disturbance.
B. Moderate invasive potential—this species may occasionally establish in undisturbed areas but can readily establish in areas with natural disturbances.
C. Low invasive potential—this species requires anthropogenic disturbance to establish.
D. No perceptible invasive potential—this species does not establish in wildlands (though it may persist from former cultivation).
U. Unknown.
B. Moderate Other Published Material
Invasiveness
Section 2 Scoring Matrix
Total pointsScore
17-21A
11-16B
5-10C
0-4D
More than two U’sU


Total Points
13

Total Score
B
2.2 Local rate of spread with no management
Assess this species’ rate of spread in existing localized infestations where the proportion of available habitat invaded is still small when no management measures are implemented.

Select the one letter below that best describes the rate of spread:
A. Increases rapidly (doubling in <10 years)
B. Increases, but less rapidly
C. Stable
D. Declining
U. Unknown
B. Increases less rapidly Observational
2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state
Assess the overall trend in the total area infested by this species statewide. Include current management efforts in this assessment and note them.

Select the one letter below that best describes the current trend:
A. Increasing rapidly (doubling in total range statewide in <10 years)
B. Increasing, but less rapidly
C. Stable
D. Declining
U. Unknown
C. Stable Other Published Material
2.4 Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
Assess the innate reproductive potential of this species. Worksheet A is provided for computing the score.
A. High Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal
Assess whether this species is currently spread—or has high potential to be spread—by direct or indirect human activity. Such activity may enable the species to overcome natural barriers to dispersal that would not be crossed otherwise, or it may simply increase the natural dispersal of the species. Possible mechanisms for dispersal include:
- commercial sales for use in agriculture, ornamental horticulture, or aquariums;
- use as forage, erosion control, or revegetation;
- presence as a contaminant (seeds or propagules) in bulk seed, hay, feed, soil, packing materials, etc.;
- spread along transportation corridors such as highways, railroads, trails, or canals;
- transport on boats or boat trailers.

Select the one letter below that best describes human-caused dispersal and spread:
A. High—there are numerous opportunities for dispersal to new areas.
B. Moderate—human dispersal occurs, but not at a high level.
C. Low—human dispersal is infrequent or inefficient.
D. Does not occur.
U. Unknown.
A. High Other Published Material
2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal
We have chosen 1 km as the threshold of "long-distance." Assess whether this species is frequently spread, or has high potential to be spread, by animals or abiotic mechanisms that can move seed, roots, stems, or other propagules this far. The following are examples of such natural long-distance dispersal mechanisms:
- the species’ fruit or seed is commonly consumed by birds or other animals that travel long distances;
- the species’ fruits or seeds are sticky or burred and cling to feathers or hair of animals;
- the species has buoyant fruits, seeds, or other propagules that are dispersed by flowing water;
- the species has light propagules that promote long-distance wind dispersal;
- The species, or parts of it, can detach and disperse seeds as they are blown long distances (e.g., tumbleweed).

Select the one letter below that best describes natural long-distance dispersal and spread:
A. Frequent long-distance dispersal by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
B. Occasional long-distance dispersal by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
C. Rare dispersal more than 1 km by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
D. No dispersal of more than 1 km by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
U. Unknown.
C. Rare Reviewed Scientific Publication
2.7 Other regions invaded
Assess whether this species has invaded ecological types in other states or countries outside its native range that are analogous to ecological types not yet invaded in your state (see Worksheets B, C, and D for California, Arizona, and Nevada, respectively, in Part IV for lists of ecological types). This information is useful in predicting the likelihood of further spread within your state.

Select the one letter below that best describes the species' invasiveness in other states or countries, outside its native range.
A. This species has invaded 3 or more ecological types elsewhere that exist in your state and are as yet not invaded by this species (e.g. it has invaded Mediterranean grasslands, savanna, and maquis in southern Europe, which are analogous to California grasslands, savanna, and chaparral, respectively).
B. Invades 1 or 2 ecological types that exist but are not yet invaded in your state.
C. Invades elsewhere but only in ecological types that it has already invaded in the state.
D. Not known as an escape anywhere else.
U. Unknown.
C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
Refer to Worksheet C and select the one letter below that indicates the number of different ecological types that this species invades.
A. Widespread—the species invades at least three major types or at least six minor types.
B. Moderate—the species invades two major types or five minor types.
C. Limited—the species invades only one major type and two to four minor types.
D. Narrow—the species invades only one minor type.
U. Unknown.
A. Widespread Other Published Material
Distribution
Section 3 Scoring Matrix
Q 3.1Q 3.2Score
AA, BA
AC,D,UB
BAA
BB,CB
BDC
CA,BB
CC,DC
DAB
DB,CC
DDD
A,BUC
C,DUD
UUU


Total Score
A
3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
To assess distribution, record the letter that corresponds to the highest percent infested score entered in Worksheet C for any ecological type.
A. High Observational

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".
Short citations may be used in this table. List full citations at end of this table.

Section 1: Impact

U Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes
Consider the impact on the natural range and variation of abiotic ecosystem processes and system-wide parameters in ways that significantly diminish the ability of native species to survive and reproduce. Alterations that determine the types of communities that can exist in a given area are of greatest concern. Examples of abiotic processes include:
- fire occurrence, frequency, and intensity;
- geomorphological changes such as erosion and sedimentation rates;
- hydrological regimes, including soil water table;
- nutrient and mineral dynamics, including salinity, alkalinity, and pH;
- light availability (e.g. when an aquatic invader covers an entire water body that would otherwise be open).

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ most severe impact on an abiotic ecosystem process:
A. Severe, possibly irreversible, alteration or disruption of an ecosystem process.
B. Moderate alteration of an ecosystem process.
C. Minor alteration of an ecosystem process.
D. Negligible perceived impact on an ecosystem process.
U. Unknown.
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:
None. No literature described ecosystem processes impacts.

Sources of information:

Reviewed Scientific Publication C Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions
Consider the cumulative ecological impact of this species to the plant communities it invades. Give more weight to changes in plant composition, structure, and interactions that involve rare or keystone species or rare community types. Examples of severe impacts include:
- formation of stands dominated (>75% cover) by the species;
- occlusion (>75% cover) of a native canopy, including a water surface, that eliminates or degrades layers below;
- significant reduction or extirpation of populations of one or more native species.

Examples of impacts usually less than severe include:
- reduction in propagule dispersal, seedling recruitment, or survivorship of native species;
- creation of a new structural layer, including substantial thatch or litter, without elimination or replacement of a pre-existing layer;
- change in density or depth of a structural layer;
- change in horizontal distribution patterns or fragmentation of a native community;
- creation of a vector or intermediate host of pests or pathogens that infect native plant species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on community composition, structure and interactions:
A. Severe alteration of plant community composition, structure, or interactions.
B. Moderate alteration of plant community composition.
C. Minor alteration of community composition.
D. Negligible impact known; causes no perceivable change in community composition, structure, or interactions.
U. Unknown.
Identify type of impact or alteration:
Tall fescue grows in dense stands in the mid-South. Tall fescue leaves droop and fall upon senescence, creating a deep layer of thatch. This prevents germination of other seeds. Invasion by Festuca threatens remaining native CA grasslands. The level of plant diversity in successional fields with tall fescue tends to decrease over time (as fescue is highly competitive and increases in number and size). Can displace native species. In PN, F. arundinacea inhibits woody plant growth and survival. Allelopathic compounds increase its persistence and competitiveness. Can form dense, solid stands. Can change the vegetation structure (from open, forb and grasslands to dense cover) and can reduce forb populations in grasslands. Weed committee’s consensus is that dense stands are not present in California and impacts are relatively minor compared to other species. Most information on this species is from the southern US, and does not necessarily apply to California. (Joe DiTomaso, Jake Sigg, Carla Bossard, Peter Warner 9/15/05)

Sources of information:
Fettinger, J.L., C.A. Harper, C.E. Dixon. 2002. Invertebrate availability for upland game birds in tall fescue and native warm-season grass fields. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 77(4): 83-87. Reynolds, SA, JD Corbin, CM D'Antonio. 2001. The effects of litter and temperature on the germination of native and exotic grasses in a coastal California grassland. Madrono 48(4): 230-235. Batcher, MS. Element Stewardship Abstract: Festuca arundinacea. The Nature Conservancy.

Reviewed Scientific Publication B Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels
Consider the cumulative impact of this species on the animals, fungi, microbes, and other organisms in the communities that it invades. Although a non-native species may provide resources for one or a few native species (e.g. by providing food, nesting sites, etc.), the ranking should be based on the species’ net impact on all native species. Give more weight to changes in composition and interactions involving rare or keystone species or rare community types.
Examples of severe impacts include:
- extirpation or endangerment of an existing native species or population;
- elimination or significant reduction in native species’ nesting or foraging sites, cover, or other critical resources (i.e., native species habitat), including migratory corridors.

Examples of impacts that are usually less than severe include:
- minor reduction in nesting or foraging sites, cover, etc. for native animals;
- minor reduction in habitat connectivity or migratory corridors;
- interference with native pollinators;
- injurious components, such as awns or spines that damage the mouth and gut of native wildlife species, or production of anti-digestive or acutely toxic chemical that can poison native wildlife species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on community composition and interactions:
A. Severe alteration of higher trophic populations, communities, or interactions.
B. Moderate alteration of higher trophic level populations, communities, or interactions.
C. Minor alteration of higher trophic level populations, communities or interactions.
D. Negligible impact; causes no perceivable change in higher trophic level populations, communities, or interactions.
E. Unknown.
Identify type of impact or alteration:
Can be infected with an endophytic fungus that causes illness in livestock and some wild mammals that graze on it. In the mid-South, conversion of idle cropland to tall fescue pasture has degraded wildlife habitat and has been identified as a primary factor for the decline in northern bobwhite populations. Tall fescue stands make travel for many small wildlife species extremely difficult. Difficulty in travel may decrease game bird feeding rates, cause increases in energy expenditure, and possibly in mortality via stress or predation. The thatch it creates reduces food availability for wildlife. The endophytic fungal toxicosis syndromes make tall fescue poor forage for wildlife. Bobwhites on a tall fescue diet exhibit cloacal swelling and increased mortality. In the British Isles, F. arundinacea is never favored by livestock over other pasture grasses. Many animals in North America feed on F. arundinacea. Tall fescue palatability is poor for elk. Reduces habitat, travel corridors, and forage for wildlife. May be a poisoning problem.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, J., E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States. Not yet published. Fettinger, J.L., C.A. Harper, C.E. Dixon. 2002. Invertebrate availability for upland game birds in tall fescue and native warm-season grass fields. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 77(4): 83-87. Gibson, DJ, JA Newman. 2001. Biological flora of the British Isles: Festuca aurndiancea Schreber. Journal of Ecology 89: 304-324. Batcher, MS. Element Stewardship Abstract: Festuca arundinacea. The Nature Conservancy.

Other Published Material C Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity
Consider whether the species can hybridize with and influence the proportion of individuals with non-native genes within populations of native species. Mechanisms and possible outcomes include:
- production of fertile or sterile hybrids that can outcompete the native species;
- production of sterile hybrids that lower the reproductive output of the native species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on genetic integrity:
A. Severe (high proportion of individuals).
B. Moderate (medium proportion of individuals).
C. Minor (low proportion of individuals).
D. No known hybridization.
U. Unknown.
Identify impacts:
Many native Festucas exist, no documentation discussed hybridization between natives and F. arundinacea. Hybridization may be a problem, unknown.

Sources of information:
CalFlora database. Accessed 8/6/2004: www.calflora.org.

Section 2: Invasiveness

Other Published Material B Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment
Assess this species’ dependence on disturbance—both human and natural—for establishment in wildlands. Examples of anthropogenic disturbances include:
- grazing, browsing, and rooting by domestic livestock and feral animals;
- altered fire regimes, including fire suppression;
- cultivation;
- silvicultural practices;
- altered hydrology due to dams, diversions, irrigation, etc.;
- roads and trails;
- construction;
- nutrient loading from fertilizers, runoff, etc.

Examples of natural disturbance include:
- wildfire;
- floods;
- landslides;
- windthrow;
- native animal activities such as burrowing, grazing, or browsing.

Select the first letter in the sequence below that describes the ability of this species to invade wildlands:
A. Severe invasive potential—this species can establish independent of any known natural or anthropogenic disturbance.
B. Moderate invasive potential—this species may occasionally establish in undisturbed areas but can readily establish in areas with natural disturbances.
C. Low invasive potential—this species requires anthropogenic disturbance to establish.
D. No perceptible invasive potential—this species does not establish in wildlands (though it may persist from former cultivation).
U. Unknown.
Describe role of disturbance:
More frequently invades when an area has been disturbed, or its natural fire cycle has been disrupted. Able to invade undisturbed tall grass prarie in Texas. Persists long after introduction for forage or cover, absent significant disturbance, and spreads from existing stands without significant disturbance. Persists after natural disturbances, such as fire and flooding. Unclear whether disturbance is necessary or only facultative in California ecosystems.

Sources of information:
Batcher, MS. Element Stewardship Abstract: Festuca arundinacea. The Nature Conservancy. Warner, PJ. 2004. Observations of populations in Marin, Sonoma, Mendocino Counties, 1999-2004.

Observational B Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management
Assess this species’ rate of spread in existing localized infestations where the proportion of available habitat invaded is still small when no management measures are implemented.

Select the one letter below that best describes the rate of spread:
A. Increases rapidly (doubling in <10 years)
B. Increases, but less rapidly
C. Stable
D. Declining
U. Unknown
Describe rate of spread:
Will spread more rapidly absent existing cover and competition, but will exploit small pockets within established vegetation, and spread from these pioneering sites. Does not appear to dominate areas already covered by competing vegetation, so spread is likely to be slow in wildland areas.

Sources of information:
Warner, PJ. 2004. Observations in Marin, Sonoma, Mendocino Counties. 1999-2004.

Other Published Material C Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state
Assess the overall trend in the total area infested by this species statewide. Include current management efforts in this assessment and note them.

Select the one letter below that best describes the current trend:
A. Increasing rapidly (doubling in total range statewide in <10 years)
B. Increasing, but less rapidly
C. Stable
D. Declining
U. Unknown
Describe trend:
Volume of reports on distribution in CA suggests this species is widespread throughout, in a diversity of climates and ecological types. Considering that this species continues to be introduced for forage, turfgrass, erosion control, yet is already widely distributed, best estimate is that it's spreading slowly, if at all.

Sources of information:
CalFlora Database. 2004. www.calflora.org Observational, Peter Warner, Joe DiTomaso, 2004.

Reviewed Scientific Publication A Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential
Assess the innate reproductive potential of this species. Worksheet A is provided for computing the score.
Describe key reproductive characteristics:
Tufts enlarge around the perimeter by short rhizomes and tillers. Flowers May-June. Reproduces by seed. Can reproduce by vegetative rhizome fragments that result from human activities. Single plants do not produce seed the first year. F. arundinacea germinates under thick and thin levels of litter. In Britain, seeds do not last a long time in the soil. Predominantely self-sterile, but cultivars may be self-fertile. Can resprout fom rhizomes after burning. Most seed germinates in the first year, but seeds can remain viable under ideal conditions for at least 19 years. 6 points.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, J., E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States. Not yet published. Reynolds, SA, JD Corbin, CM D'Antonio. 2001. The effects of litter and temperature on the germination of native and exotic grasses in a coastal California grassland. Madrono 48(4): 230-235. Gibson, DJ, JA Newman. 2001. Biological flora of the British Isles: Festuca aurndiancea Schreber. Journal of Ecology 89: 304-324. Batcher, MS. Element Stewardship Abstract: Festuca arundinacea. The Nature Conservancy. Fire Effects Information System. Accessed 8/2004. www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants Observational, Peter Warner, Joe DiTomaso, 2004.

Other Published Material A Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal
Assess whether this species is currently spread—or has high potential to be spread—by direct or indirect human activity. Such activity may enable the species to overcome natural barriers to dispersal that would not be crossed otherwise, or it may simply increase the natural dispersal of the species. Possible mechanisms for dispersal include:
- commercial sales for use in agriculture, ornamental horticulture, or aquariums;
- use as forage, erosion control, or revegetation;
- presence as a contaminant (seeds or propagules) in bulk seed, hay, feed, soil, packing materials, etc.;
- spread along transportation corridors such as highways, railroads, trails, or canals;
- transport on boats or boat trailers.

Select the one letter below that best describes human-caused dispersal and spread:
A. High—there are numerous opportunities for dispersal to new areas.
B. Moderate—human dispersal occurs, but not at a high level.
C. Low—human dispersal is infrequent or inefficient.
D. Does not occur.
U. Unknown.
Identify dispersal mechanisms:
Widely planted for pasture, turf, hay, and erosion control. Can reproduce by vegetative fragments created by human activity. Viable seed can be transported by horse dung. Intentionally planted for a variety of reasons.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, J., E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States. Not yet published. Gibson, DJ, JA Newman. 2001. Biological flora of the British Isles: Festuca aurndiancea Schreber. Journal of Ecology 89: 304-324.

Reviewed Scientific Publication C Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal
We have chosen 1 km as the threshold of "long-distance." Assess whether this species is frequently spread, or has high potential to be spread, by animals or abiotic mechanisms that can move seed, roots, stems, or other propagules this far. The following are examples of such natural long-distance dispersal mechanisms:
- the species’ fruit or seed is commonly consumed by birds or other animals that travel long distances;
- the species’ fruits or seeds are sticky or burred and cling to feathers or hair of animals;
- the species has buoyant fruits, seeds, or other propagules that are dispersed by flowing water;
- the species has light propagules that promote long-distance wind dispersal;
- The species, or parts of it, can detach and disperse seeds as they are blown long distances (e.g., tumbleweed).

Select the one letter below that best describes natural long-distance dispersal and spread:
A. Frequent long-distance dispersal by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
B. Occasional long-distance dispersal by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
C. Rare dispersal more than 1 km by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
D. No dispersal of more than 1 km by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
U. Unknown.
Identify dispersal mechanisms:
The awn facilitates dispersal by animals. Viable seed can be transported by horse dung. Potential low.

Sources of information:
Gibson, DJ, JA Newman. 2001. Biological flora of the British Isles: Festuca aurndiancea Schreber. Journal of Ecology 89: 304-324. Observational, Peter Warner, Joe DiTomaso, 2004.

Other Published Material C Question 2.7 Other regions invaded
Assess whether this species has invaded ecological types in other states or countries outside its native range that are analogous to ecological types not yet invaded in your state (see Worksheets B, C, and D for California, Arizona, and Nevada, respectively, in Part IV for lists of ecological types). This information is useful in predicting the likelihood of further spread within your state.

Select the one letter below that best describes the species' invasiveness in other states or countries, outside its native range.
A. This species has invaded 3 or more ecological types elsewhere that exist in your state and are as yet not invaded by this species (e.g. it has invaded Mediterranean grasslands, savanna, and maquis in southern Europe, which are analogous to California grasslands, savanna, and chaparral, respectively).
B. Invades 1 or 2 ecological types that exist but are not yet invaded in your state.
C. Invades elsewhere but only in ecological types that it has already invaded in the state.
D. Not known as an escape anywhere else.
U. Unknown.
Identify other regions:
In the British Isles it grows along riversides and in woods (it is native there). Has naturalized on New Zealand's South Island and replaces native grass on coastal dunes and talus slopes. Invades grazed scrub communities in the Netherlands. Invades grasslands in Illinois. Tall fescue is found in tallgrass prairie, salt desert shrub, and sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). It is also found in pine (Pinus spp.)-Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mesziesii) forest, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest, juniper (Juniperus spp.)-pinyon (Pinus spp.) woodland, mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus spp.)-oak (Quercus spp.) scrub,and saltbush (Atriplex spp.)-greasewood (Sarcobatus spp.) communities. Invades a number of ecological types, in a number of states and countries, but no information available on whether it is found in these in CA. DiTomoso (unpublished) lists it as only occuring in coastal scrub and grassland, which would mean that it could potentially invade 4 additional habitats listed above, as well as coastal dunes. CalFlora Database lists over 100 occurrences in California, from a diversity of vegetation types, including coastal and interior grasslands, riparian and marshes, dunes, woodlands.

Sources of information:
Gibson, DJ, JA Newman. 2001. Biological flora of the British Isles: Festuca aurndiancea Schreber. Journal of Ecology 89: 304-324. Ellis, JL, G Spyreas, CJ Carroll. Non-native plant dominance in Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey. Fire Effects Information System. Accessed 8/2004. www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants CalFlora Database. 2004. www.calflora.org Observational, Peter Warner, Joe DiTomaso, 2004.

Section 3: Distribution

Other Published Material A Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range
Refer to Worksheet C and select the one letter below that indicates the number of different ecological types that this species invades.
A. Widespread—the species invades at least three major types or at least six minor types.
B. Moderate—the species invades two major types or five minor types.
C. Limited—the species invades only one major type and two to four minor types.
D. Narrow—the species invades only one minor type.
U. Unknown.
Describe ecological amplitude, identifying date of source information and approximate date of introduction to the state, if known:
Invasive in coastal scrub, grassland, cismontane woodlands, marshes, dunes throughout California. Inhabits pastures, roadsides, ditches, and other disturbed dry or wet sites. Exists throughout California, except Great Basin and deserts, to 2700 m. Can invade savanna and woodland habitats, and the edges of open marsh and fens. Invades grassland and foothill woodland in Bidwell Park, near Chico. Invades three or more major ecotypes in California.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, J., E. Healy. Weeds of California and Other Western States. Not yet published. Batcher, MS. Element Stewardship Abstract: Festuca arundinacea. The Nature Conservancy. Friends of Bidwell Park website. Accessed 8/2004. www.friendsofbidwellpark.org CalFlora Database. www.calflora.org

Observational A Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency
To assess distribution, record the letter that corresponds to the highest percent infested score entered in Worksheet C for any ecological type.
Describe distribution:
Widespread and common species throughout north coast grasslands, especially in moist areaa. Reported from many other ecological types, but no direct observations of extent of sites where this species is present. Present in > 50% of coastal prairie grassland.

Sources of information:
Warner, PJ. 2004. Observations in San Mateo, Marin, Sonoma, Mendocino Counties, 1999-2004. Observational, Peter Warner, Joe DiTomaso, 2004.

Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes, 1 points
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes, 2 points
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes, 1 points
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Unknown
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination No
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes Yes, 1 points
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere No
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes, 1 points
Total points: 6
Total unknowns: 1
Total score: A
Scoring Criteria for Worksheet A
A. High reproductive potential (6 or more points).
B. Moderate reproductive potential (4-5 points).
C. Low reproductive potential (3 points or less and less than 3 Unknowns).
U. Unknown (3 or fewer points and 3 or more Unknowns).
Note any related traits:
The number of tillers increases when grazed. Gibson, DJ, JA Newman. 2001. Biological flora of the British Isles: Festuca aurndiancea Schreber. Journal of Ecology 89: 304-324. Some cultivars are self-fertile, generally plant is self-sterile.
Return to Table 2

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here


Worksheet C - California Ecological Types
 
(sensu Holland 1986)

Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code
A means >50% of type occurrences are invaded;
B means >20% to 50%;
C means >5% to 20%;
D means present but ≤5%;
U means unknown (unable to estimate percentage of occurrences invaded)
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirs
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canals
estuaries
DunescoastalD. < 5%
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrubC. 5% - 20%
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, coastal prairieA. > 50%
Meadows, and other Herbvalley and foothill grasslandD. < 5%
CommunitiesGreat Basin grasslandD. < 5%
vernal poolD. < 5%
meadow and seepD. < 5%
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swampD. < 5%
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodlandD. < 5%
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)D. < 5%
Woodlandcismontane woodlandD. < 5%
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forestD. < 5%
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth)  
Distribution (highest score)  
Return to Table 2

Addendum J - Jepson Regions Infested
 
Click here for a map of Jepson regions

Infested Jepson Regions:
Check the boxes to indicate the Jepson floristic provinces in which this species is found.














Addendum L - External Links & Resources

Cal-IPC Plant Profile
The Cal-IPC Plant Profile for this species.
http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/plant_profiles/Festuca_arundinacea.php
Calflora Plant Profile:
The Calflora Plant Profile for this species.
http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=3576
CalWeedMapper:
Load CalWeedMapper with this species already selected.
http://calweedmapper.cal-ipc.org/maps/?species=122