Source: California Invasive Plant Council


URL of this page: http://www.cal-ipc.org/site/paf/333
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Cal-IPC Plant Assessment Form

For use with "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands"
by the California Invasive Plant Council and the Southwest Vegetation Management Association

Table 1. Species and Evaluator Information

Species name
(Latin binomial):
The official Latin binomial name for this species. Specify only one name here. Additional species names may go into the Synonyms field.

Eichhornia crassipes

Synonyms:
Additional Latin binomial names for this species. Separate multiple names with a ; character. Please avoid narrative descriptions, and list only the binomial names.
Eichhornia speciosa, Heteranthera formosa, Piaropus crassipes, Pontederia crassipes
Common names:
Common names for this species. Separate multiple names with a ; character.
water hyacinth
Evaluation date:
The date(s) when this species PAF was filled out, modified, or reviewed. This is free-form text, so it may include multiple dates or other notes.
8/20/2004
Evaluator #1 Brianna Richardson, Project Manager
California Invasive Plant Council
1442-A Walnut Street #462, Berkeley, CA 94709
510.843.3902
brichardson@cal-ipc.org
List committee members: Alison Stanton, Cynthia Roye, Jake Sigg, John Randall, Joe DiTomaso, Peter Warner
Committee review date: 8/27/2004
List date:
Re-evaluation date(s):
General comments
on this assessment:
Enter any additional notes about this assessment, such as factors affecting the reliability or completeness of the answers, likely affects of impacts, or research which is not specific to California but is still relevant in the evaluation of this species.
Water hyacinth has both economically beneficial uses and causes significant economic damage, neither of which is considered in this assessment.

Table 2. Criteria, Section, and Overall Scores

Overall Score

Plant scoring matrix
Based on letter scores from Sections 1 through 3 below

ImpactInvasivenessDistribution
AA BAnyHighNo Alert
AC DAnyModerateAlert
BA BA BModerateNo Alert
BA BC DModerateAlert
BC DAnyLimitedNo Alert
CAA BModerateNo Alert
CAC DLimitedNo Alert
CBAModerateNo Alert
CBB DLimitedNo Alert
CCAnyLimitedNo Alert
DAnyAnyNot ListedNo Alert

High

Alert Status

Plant scoring matrix
Based on letter scores from Sections 1 through 3 below

ImpactInvasivenessDistributionAlert
AA or BC or DAlert
BA or BC or DAlert

Alert

Documentation

The total documentation score is the average
of Documentation scores given in Table 2.

Reviewed Scientific Publication4 points
Other Published Material3 points
Observational2 points
Anecdotal1 points
Unknown or No Information0 points

3.2 out of 5

Score Documentation
1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes
Consider the impact on the natural range and variation of abiotic ecosystem processes and system-wide parameters in ways that significantly diminish the ability of native species to survive and reproduce. Alterations that determine the types of communities that can exist in a given area are of greatest concern. Examples of abiotic processes include:
- fire occurrence, frequency, and intensity;
- geomorphological changes such as erosion and sedimentation rates;
- hydrological regimes, including soil water table;
- nutrient and mineral dynamics, including salinity, alkalinity, and pH;
- light availability (e.g. when an aquatic invader covers an entire water body that would otherwise be open).

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ most severe impact on an abiotic ecosystem process:
A. Severe, possibly irreversible, alteration or disruption of an ecosystem process.
B. Moderate alteration of an ecosystem process.
C. Minor alteration of an ecosystem process.
D. Negligible perceived impact on an ecosystem process.
U. Unknown.
A. Severe Reviewed Scientific Publication
Impact
Section 1 Scoring Matrix
Q 1.1Q 1.2Q 1.3Q 1.4Score
AAAnyAnyA
ABA,BAnyA
ABC,D,UAnyB
AC,D,UAnyAnyB
BAAAnyA
BABAA
BAB,CB-D,UB
BAC,D,UAA
BAC,D,UB-D,UB
BBAAA
BC,D,UAAB
BB-DAB-D,UB
BB-DB-D,UAnyB
BD,UC,D,UA-BB
BD,UC,D,UC,D,UC
C-D,UAAAnyA
CBAAnyB
CA,BB-D,UAnyB
CC,D,UAnyAnyC
DA,BBAnyB
DA,BC,D,UAnyC
DCAnyAnyC
DD,UAnyAnyD
UAB,CAnyB
UB,CA,BAnyB
UB,CC,D,UAnyC
UUAnyAnyU


Four-part score
AAAD

Total Score
A
1.2 Impact on plant community
Consider the cumulative ecological impact of this species to the plant communities it invades. Give more weight to changes in plant composition, structure, and interactions that involve rare or keystone species or rare community types. Examples of severe impacts include:
- formation of stands dominated (>75% cover) by the species;
- occlusion (>75% cover) of a native canopy, including a water surface, that eliminates or degrades layers below;
- significant reduction or extirpation of populations of one or more native species.

Examples of impacts usually less than severe include:
- reduction in propagule dispersal, seedling recruitment, or survivorship of native species;
- creation of a new structural layer, including substantial thatch or litter, without elimination or replacement of a pre-existing layer;
- change in density or depth of a structural layer;
- change in horizontal distribution patterns or fragmentation of a native community;
- creation of a vector or intermediate host of pests or pathogens that infect native plant species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on community composition, structure and interactions:
A. Severe alteration of plant community composition, structure, or interactions.
B. Moderate alteration of plant community composition.
C. Minor alteration of community composition.
D. Negligible impact known; causes no perceivable change in community composition, structure, or interactions.
U. Unknown.
A. Severe Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels
Consider the cumulative impact of this species on the animals, fungi, microbes, and other organisms in the communities that it invades. Although a non-native species may provide resources for one or a few native species (e.g. by providing food, nesting sites, etc.), the ranking should be based on the species’ net impact on all native species. Give more weight to changes in composition and interactions involving rare or keystone species or rare community types.
Examples of severe impacts include:
- extirpation or endangerment of an existing native species or population;
- elimination or significant reduction in native species’ nesting or foraging sites, cover, or other critical resources (i.e., native species habitat), including migratory corridors.

Examples of impacts that are usually less than severe include:
- minor reduction in nesting or foraging sites, cover, etc. for native animals;
- minor reduction in habitat connectivity or migratory corridors;
- interference with native pollinators;
- injurious components, such as awns or spines that damage the mouth and gut of native wildlife species, or production of anti-digestive or acutely toxic chemical that can poison native wildlife species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on community composition and interactions:
A. Severe alteration of higher trophic populations, communities, or interactions.
B. Moderate alteration of higher trophic level populations, communities, or interactions.
C. Minor alteration of higher trophic level populations, communities or interactions.
D. Negligible impact; causes no perceivable change in higher trophic level populations, communities, or interactions.
E. Unknown.
A. Severe Reviewed Scientific Publication
1.4 Impact on genetic integrity
Consider whether the species can hybridize with and influence the proportion of individuals with non-native genes within populations of native species. Mechanisms and possible outcomes include:
- production of fertile or sterile hybrids that can outcompete the native species;
- production of sterile hybrids that lower the reproductive output of the native species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on genetic integrity:
A. Severe (high proportion of individuals).
B. Moderate (medium proportion of individuals).
C. Minor (low proportion of individuals).
D. No known hybridization.
U. Unknown.
D. None Other Published Material
2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance in establishment
Assess this species’ dependence on disturbance—both human and natural—for establishment in wildlands. Examples of anthropogenic disturbances include:
- grazing, browsing, and rooting by domestic livestock and feral animals;
- altered fire regimes, including fire suppression;
- cultivation;
- silvicultural practices;
- altered hydrology due to dams, diversions, irrigation, etc.;
- roads and trails;
- construction;
- nutrient loading from fertilizers, runoff, etc.

Examples of natural disturbance include:
- wildfire;
- floods;
- landslides;
- windthrow;
- native animal activities such as burrowing, grazing, or browsing.

Select the first letter in the sequence below that describes the ability of this species to invade wildlands:
A. Severe invasive potential—this species can establish independent of any known natural or anthropogenic disturbance.
B. Moderate invasive potential—this species may occasionally establish in undisturbed areas but can readily establish in areas with natural disturbances.
C. Low invasive potential—this species requires anthropogenic disturbance to establish.
D. No perceptible invasive potential—this species does not establish in wildlands (though it may persist from former cultivation).
U. Unknown.
A. Severe Other Published Material
Invasiveness
Section 2 Scoring Matrix
Total pointsScore
17-21A
11-16B
5-10C
0-4D
More than two U’sU


Total Points
17

Total Score
A
2.2 Local rate of spread with no management
Assess this species’ rate of spread in existing localized infestations where the proportion of available habitat invaded is still small when no management measures are implemented.

Select the one letter below that best describes the rate of spread:
A. Increases rapidly (doubling in <10 years)
B. Increases, but less rapidly
C. Stable
D. Declining
U. Unknown
A. Increases rapidly Other Published Material
2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state
Assess the overall trend in the total area infested by this species statewide. Include current management efforts in this assessment and note them.

Select the one letter below that best describes the current trend:
A. Increasing rapidly (doubling in total range statewide in <10 years)
B. Increasing, but less rapidly
C. Stable
D. Declining
U. Unknown
C. Stable Other Published Material
2.4 Innate reproductive potential
(see Worksheet A)
Assess the innate reproductive potential of this species. Worksheet A is provided for computing the score.
A. High Other Published Material
2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal
Assess whether this species is currently spread—or has high potential to be spread—by direct or indirect human activity. Such activity may enable the species to overcome natural barriers to dispersal that would not be crossed otherwise, or it may simply increase the natural dispersal of the species. Possible mechanisms for dispersal include:
- commercial sales for use in agriculture, ornamental horticulture, or aquariums;
- use as forage, erosion control, or revegetation;
- presence as a contaminant (seeds or propagules) in bulk seed, hay, feed, soil, packing materials, etc.;
- spread along transportation corridors such as highways, railroads, trails, or canals;
- transport on boats or boat trailers.

Select the one letter below that best describes human-caused dispersal and spread:
A. High—there are numerous opportunities for dispersal to new areas.
B. Moderate—human dispersal occurs, but not at a high level.
C. Low—human dispersal is infrequent or inefficient.
D. Does not occur.
U. Unknown.
A. High Other Published Material
2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal
We have chosen 1 km as the threshold of "long-distance." Assess whether this species is frequently spread, or has high potential to be spread, by animals or abiotic mechanisms that can move seed, roots, stems, or other propagules this far. The following are examples of such natural long-distance dispersal mechanisms:
- the species’ fruit or seed is commonly consumed by birds or other animals that travel long distances;
- the species’ fruits or seeds are sticky or burred and cling to feathers or hair of animals;
- the species has buoyant fruits, seeds, or other propagules that are dispersed by flowing water;
- the species has light propagules that promote long-distance wind dispersal;
- The species, or parts of it, can detach and disperse seeds as they are blown long distances (e.g., tumbleweed).

Select the one letter below that best describes natural long-distance dispersal and spread:
A. Frequent long-distance dispersal by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
B. Occasional long-distance dispersal by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
C. Rare dispersal more than 1 km by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
D. No dispersal of more than 1 km by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
U. Unknown.
A. Frequent Other Published Material
2.7 Other regions invaded
Assess whether this species has invaded ecological types in other states or countries outside its native range that are analogous to ecological types not yet invaded in your state (see Worksheets B, C, and D for California, Arizona, and Nevada, respectively, in Part IV for lists of ecological types). This information is useful in predicting the likelihood of further spread within your state.

Select the one letter below that best describes the species' invasiveness in other states or countries, outside its native range.
A. This species has invaded 3 or more ecological types elsewhere that exist in your state and are as yet not invaded by this species (e.g. it has invaded Mediterranean grasslands, savanna, and maquis in southern Europe, which are analogous to California grasslands, savanna, and chaparral, respectively).
B. Invades 1 or 2 ecological types that exist but are not yet invaded in your state.
C. Invades elsewhere but only in ecological types that it has already invaded in the state.
D. Not known as an escape anywhere else.
U. Unknown.
C. Already invaded Other Published Material
3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range
(see Worksheet C)
Refer to Worksheet C and select the one letter below that indicates the number of different ecological types that this species invades.
A. Widespread—the species invades at least three major types or at least six minor types.
B. Moderate—the species invades two major types or five minor types.
C. Limited—the species invades only one major type and two to four minor types.
D. Narrow—the species invades only one minor type.
U. Unknown.
C. Limited Other Published Material
Distribution
Section 3 Scoring Matrix
Q 3.1Q 3.2Score
AA, BA
AC,D,UB
BAA
BB,CB
BDC
CA,BB
CC,DC
DAB
DB,CC
DDD
A,BUC
C,DUD
UUU


Total Score
C
3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency
(see Worksheet C)
To assess distribution, record the letter that corresponds to the highest percent infested score entered in Worksheet C for any ecological type.
D. Very low Other Published Material

Table 3. Documentation

Scores are explained in the "Criteria for Categorizing Invasive Non-Native Plants that Threaten Wildlands".
Short citations may be used in this table. List full citations at end of this table.

Section 1: Impact

Reviewed Scientific Publication A Question 1.1 Impact on abiotic ecosystem processes
Consider the impact on the natural range and variation of abiotic ecosystem processes and system-wide parameters in ways that significantly diminish the ability of native species to survive and reproduce. Alterations that determine the types of communities that can exist in a given area are of greatest concern. Examples of abiotic processes include:
- fire occurrence, frequency, and intensity;
- geomorphological changes such as erosion and sedimentation rates;
- hydrological regimes, including soil water table;
- nutrient and mineral dynamics, including salinity, alkalinity, and pH;
- light availability (e.g. when an aquatic invader covers an entire water body that would otherwise be open).

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ most severe impact on an abiotic ecosystem process:
A. Severe, possibly irreversible, alteration or disruption of an ecosystem process.
B. Moderate alteration of an ecosystem process.
C. Minor alteration of an ecosystem process.
D. Negligible perceived impact on an ecosystem process.
U. Unknown.
Identify ecosystem processes impacted:
Forms dense mats that block sunlight. Mats clog waterways, and alter water oxygen levels, temperature, and pH. Increases suspended and dissolved organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorous. Decreases nitrate nitrogen. Increases sulphate content. Increases biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand. Removes pollutants from water. Increases water losses from lakes and rivers due to its high traspiration rate (almost 8x that of evaporation from open water). Increases carbon-dioxide tension and turbidity. Adds suspended particulate matter to water. Lowers water temperature. Increases free carbon-dioxide, and decreases dissolved oxygen. Increases calcium hardness. Increases water conductivity. Decreases water transparency. Changes chemistry, light availability, water temperature, and water evaporation rates of infested waterways.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Godfrey, K. 2000. Eichhornia crassipes. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, CC., JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky (eds.) University of California Press, Berkeley: 171-175. Aneja, KR, K Singh. 1992. Effect of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on the physico-chemical environment of a shallow pond. Proceeding of the Indian National Science Academy. B58(6): 357-364. Rommens, W., J Maes, N Dekeza, P Inghelbrecht, T Nhiwatiwa, E Holsters, F Ollevier, B Marshall, L Brendock. 2003. The impact of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in a eutrophic subtropical impoundment (Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe). I. Water quality. Archive Fuer Hydrobiologie. 158(3): 373-388.

Reviewed Scientific Publication A Question 1.2 Impact on plant community composition,
structure, and interactions
Consider the cumulative ecological impact of this species to the plant communities it invades. Give more weight to changes in plant composition, structure, and interactions that involve rare or keystone species or rare community types. Examples of severe impacts include:
- formation of stands dominated (>75% cover) by the species;
- occlusion (>75% cover) of a native canopy, including a water surface, that eliminates or degrades layers below;
- significant reduction or extirpation of populations of one or more native species.

Examples of impacts usually less than severe include:
- reduction in propagule dispersal, seedling recruitment, or survivorship of native species;
- creation of a new structural layer, including substantial thatch or litter, without elimination or replacement of a pre-existing layer;
- change in density or depth of a structural layer;
- change in horizontal distribution patterns or fragmentation of a native community;
- creation of a vector or intermediate host of pests or pathogens that infect native plant species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on community composition, structure and interactions:
A. Severe alteration of plant community composition, structure, or interactions.
B. Moderate alteration of plant community composition.
C. Minor alteration of community composition.
D. Negligible impact known; causes no perceivable change in community composition, structure, or interactions.
U. Unknown.
Identify type of impact or alteration:
Forms dense mats that produce a large amount of dry matter. Displace native aquatic vegetation. Causes extreme hypoxic and hypercarbic conditions harmful to native plants. In the Brendock et. al. study, hyacinth decreased planktonic and macrophyte diveristy, while blue-green algae abundance increased. Can provide shelter for snakes in some areas. On Lake Okeechobee (in FL) hyacinth was allowed to grow in 1986 and between Aug and Nov had "destroyed native plant communities." On Lake Okeechobee (in FL) hyacinth was allowed to grow in 1986 and between Aug and Nov had "destroyed native plant communities." Forms large, dense monocultures. Occludes water surface. Decreases aquatic plant diversity and abundance. Creates increased structural layer (in canopy).

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Aneja, KR, K Singh. 1992. Effect of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on the physico-chemical environment of a shallow pond. Proceeding of the Indian National Science Academy. B58(6): 357-364. Brendonck, L, J Maes, W Rommens, N Dekeza, T Nhiwatiwa, M Barson, V Callebaut, C Phiri, K Moreau, B Gratwicke, M Stevens, N Alyn, E Holsters, F Ollevier, B Marshall. 2003. The impact of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in a eutrophic subtropical impoundment (Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe). II. Species diversity. Archive Fuer Hydrobiologie. 158(3): 389-405. Parsons, WT, EG Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne. P. 139-144. Joyce, JC. 1992. Impac of Eichhornia and Hydrilla in the United States. ICES Marine Science Symposium: 106-109. Observational, Joe DiTomaso, John Randall, 2004.

Reviewed Scientific Publication A Question 1.3 Impact on higher trophic levels
Consider the cumulative impact of this species on the animals, fungi, microbes, and other organisms in the communities that it invades. Although a non-native species may provide resources for one or a few native species (e.g. by providing food, nesting sites, etc.), the ranking should be based on the species’ net impact on all native species. Give more weight to changes in composition and interactions involving rare or keystone species or rare community types.
Examples of severe impacts include:
- extirpation or endangerment of an existing native species or population;
- elimination or significant reduction in native species’ nesting or foraging sites, cover, or other critical resources (i.e., native species habitat), including migratory corridors.

Examples of impacts that are usually less than severe include:
- minor reduction in nesting or foraging sites, cover, etc. for native animals;
- minor reduction in habitat connectivity or migratory corridors;
- interference with native pollinators;
- injurious components, such as awns or spines that damage the mouth and gut of native wildlife species, or production of anti-digestive or acutely toxic chemical that can poison native wildlife species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on community composition and interactions:
A. Severe alteration of higher trophic populations, communities, or interactions.
B. Moderate alteration of higher trophic level populations, communities, or interactions.
C. Minor alteration of higher trophic level populations, communities or interactions.
D. Negligible impact; causes no perceivable change in higher trophic level populations, communities, or interactions.
E. Unknown.
Identify type of impact or alteration:
Provides mosquito habitat. Displace native wildlife. European honey bee main pollinator in CA. Degrades water fowl habitat by reducing open water. When decomposing, makes water unfit for consumption by wildlife. Displaces native plants used as food and shelter by wildlife. Changes to water chemistry and light levels affect the health of fish. Causes extreme hypoxic and hypercarbic conditions harmful to wildlife. In the Brendock et. al. study, hyacinth decreased planktonic and macrophyte diversity, while increasing macro-invertabrate and fish diversity in some areas. Can provide shelter for snakes in some areas. Reduces water, shelter, and food sources for wildlife. Can negatively impact migratory birds. Decreases planktonic diversity. Can increase fish diversity (one study). Can provide shelter for some animals. The negative effects on wildlife appear to outweigh any benefits some species may accrue.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Godfrey, K. 2000. Eichhornia crassipes. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, CC., JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky (eds.) University of California Press, Berkeley: 171-175. Aneja, KR, K Singh. 1992. Effect of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) on the physico-chemical environment of a shallow pond. Proceeding of the Indian National Science Academy. B58(6): 357-364. Brendonck, L, J Maes, W Rommens, N Dekeza, T Nhiwatiwa, M Barson, V Callebaut, C Phiri, K Moreau, B Gratwicke, M Stevens, N Alyn, E Holsters, F Ollevier, B Marshall. 2003. The impact of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in a eutrophic subtropical impoundment (Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe). II. Species diversity. Archive Fuer Hydrobiologie. 158(3): 389-405.

Other Published Material D Question 1.4 Impact on genetic integrity
Consider whether the species can hybridize with and influence the proportion of individuals with non-native genes within populations of native species. Mechanisms and possible outcomes include:
- production of fertile or sterile hybrids that can outcompete the native species;
- production of sterile hybrids that lower the reproductive output of the native species.

Select the one letter below that best describes this species’ impact on genetic integrity:
A. Severe (high proportion of individuals).
B. Moderate (medium proportion of individuals).
C. Minor (low proportion of individuals).
D. No known hybridization.
U. Unknown.
Identify impacts:
There are no closely related CA natives.

Sources of information:
Godfrey, K. 2000. Eichhornia crassipes. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, CC., JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky (eds.) University of California Press, Berkeley: 171-175.

Section 2: Invasiveness

Other Published Material A Question 2.1 Role of anthropogenic and natural disturbance
in establishment
Assess this species’ dependence on disturbance—both human and natural—for establishment in wildlands. Examples of anthropogenic disturbances include:
- grazing, browsing, and rooting by domestic livestock and feral animals;
- altered fire regimes, including fire suppression;
- cultivation;
- silvicultural practices;
- altered hydrology due to dams, diversions, irrigation, etc.;
- roads and trails;
- construction;
- nutrient loading from fertilizers, runoff, etc.

Examples of natural disturbance include:
- wildfire;
- floods;
- landslides;
- windthrow;
- native animal activities such as burrowing, grazing, or browsing.

Select the first letter in the sequence below that describes the ability of this species to invade wildlands:
A. Severe invasive potential—this species can establish independent of any known natural or anthropogenic disturbance.
B. Moderate invasive potential—this species may occasionally establish in undisturbed areas but can readily establish in areas with natural disturbances.
C. Low invasive potential—this species requires anthropogenic disturbance to establish.
D. No perceptible invasive potential—this species does not establish in wildlands (though it may persist from former cultivation).
U. Unknown.
Describe role of disturbance:
Dams can create still water conducive to establishment. Disturbance is unneccesary for establishment.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Parsons, WT, EG Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne. P. 139-144.

Other Published Material A Question 2.2 Local rate of spread with no management
Assess this species’ rate of spread in existing localized infestations where the proportion of available habitat invaded is still small when no management measures are implemented.

Select the one letter below that best describes the rate of spread:
A. Increases rapidly (doubling in <10 years)
B. Increases, but less rapidly
C. Stable
D. Declining
U. Unknown
Describe rate of spread:
Extremely high rate of growth. Plant numbers can double in ~5 days. One plant can cover 600 square meters in one year. Without management, hyacinth can easily double in less than 10 years.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Godfrey, K. 2000. Eichhornia crassipes. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, CC., JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky (eds.) University of California Press, Berkeley: 171-175.

Other Published Material C Question 2.3 Recent trend in total area infested within state
Assess the overall trend in the total area infested by this species statewide. Include current management efforts in this assessment and note them.

Select the one letter below that best describes the current trend:
A. Increasing rapidly (doubling in total range statewide in <10 years)
B. Increasing, but less rapidly
C. Stable
D. Declining
U. Unknown
Describe trend:
Populations have declined in LA and other SE states, but the agents have not become established in CA.

Sources of information:
Godfrey, K. 2000. Eichhornia crassipes. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, CC., JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky (eds.) University of California Press, Berkeley: 171-175. Personal knowledge, Joe DiTomaso. 2004.

Other Published Material A Question 2.4 Innate reproductive potential
Assess the innate reproductive potential of this species. Worksheet A is provided for computing the score.
Describe key reproductive characteristics:
Flowers June-October. Plants linked by stolons from stem. Insect pollinated. Each seed capsule can contain up to 300 seeds. Stems can survive foliage death (by frost) and grow new foliage. Reproduces vegetatively from stolons and by seed. In temperate regions, seeds may survive up to 20 yrs in dried mud, survive for several years in sediment. Fragments as small as 1.5 cm and rhizomes can establish new plants. Believed to be self-pollinated. Bunches of plants break off and float to establish elsewhere. A single plant can produce new infestations. Reaches reproductive maturity within a few weeks. 11 points.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Godfrey, K. 2000. Eichhornia crassipes. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, CC., JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky (eds.) University of California Press, Berkeley: 171-175. Forno, IW, AD Wright. 1993. The biology of Australian weeds. 5. Eichhornia crassipes. The Jouranl of the Australian Insitute of Agricultural Science (v/n unknown): 21-28.

Other Published Material A Question 2.5 Potential for human-caused dispersal
Assess whether this species is currently spread—or has high potential to be spread—by direct or indirect human activity. Such activity may enable the species to overcome natural barriers to dispersal that would not be crossed otherwise, or it may simply increase the natural dispersal of the species. Possible mechanisms for dispersal include:
- commercial sales for use in agriculture, ornamental horticulture, or aquariums;
- use as forage, erosion control, or revegetation;
- presence as a contaminant (seeds or propagules) in bulk seed, hay, feed, soil, packing materials, etc.;
- spread along transportation corridors such as highways, railroads, trails, or canals;
- transport on boats or boat trailers.

Select the one letter below that best describes human-caused dispersal and spread:
A. High—there are numerous opportunities for dispersal to new areas.
B. Moderate—human dispersal occurs, but not at a high level.
C. Low—human dispersal is infrequent or inefficient.
D. Does not occur.
U. Unknown.
Identify dispersal mechanisms:
Vegetative parts and seed dispersed by human activity. Actively transported by people both for ornamental establishment in natural waterways and by dumping. Used as a packing material and as cushions in boats. Sold horticulturally for water gardens. Increasingly used for sewage treatment in the US. Vegetative fragments can be carried by boats from one place to another. Most dispersal is human caused. Sold horticulturally. Many opportunities for both intentional and accidental dispersal by humans.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Godfrey, K. 2000. Eichhornia crassipes. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, CC., JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky (eds.) University of California Press, Berkeley: 171-175. Parsons, WT, EG Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne. P. 139-144.

Other Published Material A Question 2.6 Potential for natural long-distance dispersal
We have chosen 1 km as the threshold of "long-distance." Assess whether this species is frequently spread, or has high potential to be spread, by animals or abiotic mechanisms that can move seed, roots, stems, or other propagules this far. The following are examples of such natural long-distance dispersal mechanisms:
- the species’ fruit or seed is commonly consumed by birds or other animals that travel long distances;
- the species’ fruits or seeds are sticky or burred and cling to feathers or hair of animals;
- the species has buoyant fruits, seeds, or other propagules that are dispersed by flowing water;
- the species has light propagules that promote long-distance wind dispersal;
- The species, or parts of it, can detach and disperse seeds as they are blown long distances (e.g., tumbleweed).

Select the one letter below that best describes natural long-distance dispersal and spread:
A. Frequent long-distance dispersal by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
B. Occasional long-distance dispersal by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
C. Rare dispersal more than 1 km by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
D. No dispersal of more than 1 km by animals or abiotic mechanisms.
U. Unknown.
Identify dispersal mechanisms:
Vegetative parts and seed dispersed along waterways. Seeds can cling to the feet and feathers of birds. Migratory birds may be an important mechanism. Frequent long-distance dispersal by the flow of waterways. Occassional long-distance dispersal by birds.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Godfrey, K. 2000. Eichhornia crassipes. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, CC., JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky (eds.) University of California Press, Berkeley: 171-175.

Other Published Material C Question 2.7 Other regions invaded
Assess whether this species has invaded ecological types in other states or countries outside its native range that are analogous to ecological types not yet invaded in your state (see Worksheets B, C, and D for California, Arizona, and Nevada, respectively, in Part IV for lists of ecological types). This information is useful in predicting the likelihood of further spread within your state.

Select the one letter below that best describes the species' invasiveness in other states or countries, outside its native range.
A. This species has invaded 3 or more ecological types elsewhere that exist in your state and are as yet not invaded by this species (e.g. it has invaded Mediterranean grasslands, savanna, and maquis in southern Europe, which are analogous to California grasslands, savanna, and chaparral, respectively).
B. Invades 1 or 2 ecological types that exist but are not yet invaded in your state.
C. Invades elsewhere but only in ecological types that it has already invaded in the state.
D. Not known as an escape anywhere else.
U. Unknown.
Identify other regions:
Occurs almost worldwide in tropical and warm temperate regions. AZ, southern and eastern US. Dominates waterways in 50 countries. Invades many other places, but is restricted to the same habitat already invaded in CA.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Parsons, WT, EG Cuthbertson. 1992. Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne. P. 139-144.

Section 3: Distribution

Other Published Material C Question 3.1 Ecological amplitude/Range
Refer to Worksheet C and select the one letter below that indicates the number of different ecological types that this species invades.
A. Widespread—the species invades at least three major types or at least six minor types.
B. Moderate—the species invades two major types or five minor types.
C. Limited—the species invades only one major type and two to four minor types.
D. Narrow—the species invades only one minor type.
U. Unknown.
Describe ecological amplitude, identifying date of source information and approximate date of introduction to the state, if known:
Introduced from Brazil in 1884 as an ornamental. First found in CA in 1904. Ponds, sloughs, channels, streams, lakes, other still or slow-moving water. Invades only one major and two minor ecological types in CA.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Godfrey, K. 2000. Eichhornia crassipes. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, CC., JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky (eds.) University of California Press, Berkeley: 171-175.

Other Published Material D Question 3.2 Distribution/Peak frequency
To assess distribution, record the letter that corresponds to the highest percent infested score entered in Worksheet C for any ecological type.
Describe distribution:
Central Valley, San Francisco Bay region, South Coast, Peninsular Ranges. Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta heavily infested. Exists in less than 5% of freshwater systems in CA.

Sources of information:
DiTomaso, JM, EA Healy. 2003. Aquatic and Riparian Weeds of the West. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources publication 3421. Godfrey, K. 2000. Eichhornia crassipes. In: Invasive Plants of California's Wildlands. Bossard, CC., JM Randall, MC Hoshovsky (eds.) University of California Press, Berkeley: 171-175. Observational, Joe DiTomaso, John Randall, 2004.

Worksheet A - Innate reproductive potential

Reaches reproductive maturity in 2 years or less Yes, 1 points
Dense infestations produce >1,000 viable seed per square meter Yes, 2 points
Populations of this species produce seeds every year. Yes, 1 points
Seed production sustained over 3 or more months within a population annually No
Seeds remain viable in soil for three or more years Yes, 2 points
Viable seed produced with both self-pollination and cross-pollination Yes, 1 points
Has quickly spreading vegetative structures (rhizomes, roots, etc.) that may root at nodes Yes, 1 points
Fragments easily and fragments can become established elsewhere Yes, 2 points
Resprouts readily when cut, grazed, or burned Yes, 1 points
Total points: 11
Total unknowns: 0
Total score: A
Scoring Criteria for Worksheet A
A. High reproductive potential (6 or more points).
B. Moderate reproductive potential (4-5 points).
C. Low reproductive potential (3 points or less and less than 3 Unknowns).
U. Unknown (3 or fewer points and 3 or more Unknowns).
Note any related traits:
Return to Table 2

Worksheet B - Arizona Ecological Types is not included here


Worksheet C - California Ecological Types
 
(sensu Holland 1986)

Major Ecological Types Minor Ecological Types Code
A means >50% of type occurrences are invaded;
B means >20% to 50%;
C means >5% to 20%;
D means present but ≤5%;
U means unknown (unable to estimate percentage of occurrences invaded)
Marine Systemsmarine systems
Freshwater and Estuarine lakes, ponds, reservoirsD. < 5%
Aquatic Systemsrivers, streams, canalsD. < 5%
estuaries
Dunescoastal
desert
interior
Scrub and Chaparralcoastal bluff scrub
coastal scrub
Sonoran desert scrub
Mojavean desert scrub (incl. Joshua tree woodland)
Great Basin scrub
chenopod scrub
montane dwarf scrub
Upper Sonoran subshrub scrub
chaparral
Grasslands, Vernal Pools, coastal prairie
Meadows, and other Herbvalley and foothill grassland
CommunitiesGreat Basin grassland
vernal pool
meadow and seep
alkali playa
pebble plain
Bog and Marshbog and fen
marsh and swamp
Riparian and Bottomland habitatriparian forest
riparian woodland
riparian scrub (incl.desert washes)
Woodlandcismontane woodland
piñon and juniper woodland
Sonoran thorn woodland
Forestbroadleaved upland forest
North Coast coniferous forest
closed cone coniferous forest
lower montane coniferous forest
upper montane coniferous forest
subalpine coniferous forest
Alpine Habitatsalpine boulder and rock field
alpine dwarf scrub
Amplitude (breadth)  
Distribution (highest score)  
Return to Table 2

Addendum J - Jepson Regions Infested
 
Click here for a map of Jepson regions

Infested Jepson Regions:
Check the boxes to indicate the Jepson floristic provinces in which this species is found.














Addendum L - External Links & Resources

Cal-IPC Plant Profile
The Cal-IPC Plant Profile for this species.
http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/management/plant_profiles/Eichhornia_crassipes.php
Calflora Plant Profile:
The Calflora Plant Profile for this species.
http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-calrecnum=2896
CalWeedMapper:
Load CalWeedMapper with this species already selected.
http://calweedmapper.cal-ipc.org/maps/?species=71